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    Nd:YVO4

    Nd:YVO4 is the most efficient laser host crystal for diode pumping among the current commercial laser crystals, especially, for low to middle power density. This is mainly for its absorption and emission features surpassing Nd:YAG.


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         Nd:YVO4 is the most efficient laser host crystal for diode pumping among the current commercial laser crystals, especially, for low to middle power density. This is mainly for its absorption and emission features surpassing Nd:YAG. Pumped by laser diodes, Nd:YVO4 crystal has been incorporated with high NLO coefficient crystals ( LBO, BBO, or KTP) to frequency-shift the output from the near infrared to green, blue, or even UV. This incorporation to construct all solid state lasers is an ideal laser tool that can cover the most widespread applications of lasers, including machining, material processing, spectroscopy, wafer inspection, light displays, medical diagnostics, laser printing, and data storage, etc. It has been shown that Nd:YVO4 based diode pumped solid state lasers are rapidly occupying the markets traditionally dominated by water-cooled ion lasers and lamp-pumped lasers, especially when compact design and single-longitudinal-mode outputs are required.


    Nd:YVO4's advantages over Nd:YAG:
          ?   As high as about five times larger absorption efficient over a wide pumping bandwidth  around 808 nm ( therefore, the dependency on pumping wavelength is much lower and  a strong tendency  to the single mode output);
          ?   As large as three times larger stimulated emission cross-section at the lasing wavelength of  1064nm;
          ?   Lower lasing threshold and higher slope efficiency;
          ?   As a uniaxial crystal with a large birefringence, the emission is only a linearly polarized.
     

    CASTECH Provides:

          ?   Various doping concentration from 0.1% to 3%;
          ?   Doping concentration tolerance:±0.05%(atm%<1%),±0.1%(atm%≥1%);
          ?   Various size bulk and finished high quality Nd:YVO4 crystals up to φ35x50mm3 and φ20x20mm3, respectively;
          ?   10,000 pcs of Nd:YVO4 devices per month in sizes 3x3x0.5 to 4x4x8mm3;
          ?   With quick delivery;
          ?   With competitive price.

     

    Figure 1. Absorption Curve of  0.5% Nd:YVO4 (thickness 4mm)

     

    Basic Properties of Nd:YVO4:

     

    Atomic Density

    1.26x1020 atoms/cm3 (Nd1.0%)

    Crystal Structure

    Cell Parameter

    Zircon Tetragonal, space group D4h-I4/amd
    a=b=7.1193?,c=6.2892?

    Density

    4.22g/cm3

    Mohs Hardness

    4-5 (Glass-like)

    Thermal Expansion Coefficient(300K)

    αa=4.43x10-6/K
    αc=11.37x10-6/K

    Thermal Conductivity Coefficient(300K)

    ∥C:0.0523W/cm/K
    ⊥C:0.0510W/cm/K

    Lasing wavelength

    1064nm,1342nm

    Thermal optical coefficient(300K)

    dno/dT=8.5×10-6/K
    dne/dT=2.9×10-6/K

    Stimulated emission cross-section

    25×10-19cm2 @ 1064nm

    Fluorescent lifetime

    90μs(1%)

    Absorption coefficient

    31.4cm-1 @810nm

    Intrinsic loss

    0.02cm-1 @1064nm

    Gain bandwidth

    [email protected]

    Polarized laser emission

    polarization; parallel to optical axis (c-axis)

    Diode pumped optical to optical efficiency

    >60%

    Sellmeier equations(λ in μm)

    no2=3.77834+0.069736/(λ2-0.04724)-0.010813λ2
    ne2=4.59905+0.110534/(λ2-0.04813)-0.012676λ2


    Laser Properties of Nd:YVO4:
        1. One most attractive character of Nd:YVO4 is, compared with Nd:YAG, its 5 times larger absorption coefficient in a broader absorption bandwidth around the 808nm peak pump wavelength, which just matches the standard of high power laser diodes currently available. This means a smaller crystal that could be used for the laser, leading to a more compact laser system. For a given output power, this also means a lower power level at which the laser diode operates, thus extending the lifetime of the expensive laser diode. The broader absorption bandwidth of Nd:YVO4 which may reaches 2.4 to 6.3 times that of Nd:YAG. Besides more efficient pumping, it also means a broader range of selection of diode specifications. This will be helpful to laser system makers for wider tolerance for lower cost choice.

     

         2. Nd:YVO4 crystal has larger stimulated emission cross-sections, both at 1064nm and 1342nm. When a-axis cut Nd:YVO4 crystal lasing at 1064m, it is about 4 times higher than that of Nd:YAG, while at 1340nm the stimulated cross-section is 18 times larger, which leads to a CW operation completely outperforming Nd:YAG at 1320nm. These make Nd:YVO4 laser be easy to maintain a strong single line emission at the two wavelengths.

         3. Another important character of Nd:YVO4 lasers is, because it is an uniaxial rather than a high symmetry of cubic as Nd:YAG, it only emits a linearly polarized laser, thus avoiding undesired birefringent effects on the frequency conversion. Although the lifetime of Nd:YVO4 is about 2.7 times shorter than that of Nd:YAG, its slope efficiency can be still quite high for a proper design of laser cavity,  because of its high pump quantum efficiency.

          The major laser properties of  Nd:YVO4 vs Nd:YAG are listed in Table below,  including stimulated emission cross-sections (σ), absorption coefficient (α), fluorescent lifetime (τ), absorption length  (Lα), threshold power (Pth) and pump quantum efficiency (ηs)。

     

    Table 1. Laser Properties of Nd:YVO4 vs Nd:YAG

    Crystal

    Doping

    (atm%)

    σ

    (×10-19cm2)

    α

    (cm-1)

    τ

    (μs)

    Lα

    (mm)

    Pth

    (mW)

    ηs

    (%)

    Nd:YVO4(a-cut)

    1.0

    2.0

    25

    25

    31.2

    72.4

    90

    50

    0.32

    0.14

    30

    78

    52

    48.6

    Nd:YVO4(c-cut)

    1.1

    7

    9.2

    90

    /

    231

    45.5

    Nd:YAG

    0.85

    6

    7.1

    230

    1.41

    115

    38.6

     

     

     

    Typical Results: 

     

    ?Diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser output comparing with diode pumped Nd:YAG laser

    Crystal

    Size(mm3

    Pump Power

    Output(at 1064nm)

    Nd:YVO4

    3×3×1

    850mW

    350mW

    Nd:YVO4

    3×3×5

    15W

    6W

    Nd:YAG

    3×3×2

    850mW

    34mW

     

      ?  Diode pumped Nd:YVO4+KTP green laser.

       ?  8W green laser was generated from a 15W LD pumped 0.5%Nd:YVO4 with intracavity  KTP.  

       ?  200mW green outputs are generated from 1 W  LD pumped 2%Nd:YVO4 lasers by using CASTECH's   

       ?  2x2x5mm3 KTP and 3x3x1mm3 Nd:YVO4

     

    CASTECH provides the following coatings:

           ?   ?Both ends AR/AR-1064/808nm, R<0.2%@1064nm,r<2%@808nm;

           ?   ?S1:[email protected]&532 nm, HT808 nm, R>99.8%@1064&532nm, T>90%@808nm;

                S2:[email protected]&532 nm, R<0.2%@1064nm, R<0.5%@532nm;

           ?   ?S1:[email protected],HT808, R>99.8%@1064nm,T>95%@808nm;

                S2:[email protected], R<0.1%@1064nm;

           ?   ? S1,S2 AR-coated, S3: gold/chrome plated; 

           ?   ?Both ends AR/AR-1064 nm; S3:AR-808 nm;

           ?   ?Other coatings are available upon request.


    CASTECH's Warranty on Nd:YVO4 Specifications:

           ?   ?Dimension tolerance: (W±0.1mm)×(H±0.1mm)×(L+0.5/-0.1mm) (L≥2.5mm)

                                                  (W±0.1mm)×(H±0.1mm)×(L+0.2/-0.1mm) (L<2.5mm)

           ?   ?Clear aperture: central 90% of the diameter

           ?   ?Flatness: less than λ/8 @633nm (L≥2.5mm); less than λ/4 @633nm (L<2.5mm) 

           ?   ?Transmitting wavefront distortion: less than λ/4 @633nm

           ?   ?Chamfer: ≤0.2mm @45°

           ?   ?Chip: ≤0.1mm

           ?   ?Scratch/Dig code: better than 10/5 to MIL-PRF-13830B

           ?   ?Parallelism: better than 20 arc seconds

           ?   ?Perpendicularity: ≤5 arc minutes

           ?   ?Angle tolerance: ≤0.5°

           ?   ?Damage threshold[GW/cm2]: >1 for 1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10Hz (AR-coated)

           ?   ?Quality warranty period: one year under proper use.


     


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